As In Afaoffi, there is no proper conjugation of verbs. There is no change for
number or person The bare root is quite commonly used for any tense, especially for
tlie present and past.
Tke following is the method of expressing the relations of tense of the verb c8<£
Present,— tow k*», I eat
Present Definite,— ka« Idn u, I am eating,
Past,— k<w b'fc &a, I ate Sometimes »aa is used, as in kau po w£5 I struck. I do
not know the tones of ka and »w&.
Perfect,— k<M to Ara yau, or kow kiw yaw, I hare eaten.
Future, — katt tl kin, I shall eat.
Imperative, — kin t&9 eat.
Negative Imperative,—^* kj» £a, do not eat.
Permissive Imperative,-— km haw ta, allow to eat, let (him) eat.
Infinitive,— k«», to eat.
Infinitive of purpose,— Jiang kin, in order to eat.
Participle,— ki« sM (tone not known), having eaten.
Adverbial Participle,— urn ton nai, after eating, on eating.
The prefixes and suffixes are quite commonly widely separated from the root. A prefix
commonly appears at the beginning of the sentence, and a suffix at the end, while the
verb itself is in the middle. As explained in the General Introduction to this group (see
pp. 74 and ff.), it is not the verb which is placed in past, present, or future tense, but the
There is no passif e voice. As explained in the General Introduction (pp. 74 and
ff.), the passive is the same as the active.
As explained in the General Introduction (pp. 70 and ff.) Compound V6rl)S
are extremely common.
The Negative particles are jd^S w'» and Q-J ma. jdB6 »*> regarding the
transliteration of which see p. 147, is used in direct negation, as in Q -5 jdjta co"[ man
rfkbo, she does not laugh. Q| ma is used in conditional and interrogative sentences.
As already said, the prohibitive particle is $ p.
Interrogative force is given by putting coS U at the end of the sentence.
This particle is only used when there are no other interrogative words in the sentence,
OB BEE OF WORDS,
As in other modern Siamese-Chinese languages, the order of words in a sentence is
of great importance.
^ The adjective follows the noun it qualifies, and the genitive the nouo on which it
is dependent. In a relative sentence the demonstrative pronoun of the antecedent may
be put either at the beginning or end of the sentence,